Indium Phosphide HBT in Thermally Optimized Periphery for Applications Up to 300 GHz

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ISBN 10 : 3736992874
Pages : 154 pages
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Summary Book Review Indium Phosphide HBT in Thermally Optimized Periphery for Applications Up to 300 GHz :

Download or read book Indium Phosphide HBT in Thermally Optimized Periphery for Applications Up to 300 GHz written by Ksenia Nosaeva and published by . This book was released on 2016-07-21 with total page 154 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:

Spectroscopic Applications of Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers

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Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
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ISBN 10 : 9783736962972
Pages : 132 pages
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Summary Book Review Spectroscopic Applications of Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers :

Download or read book Spectroscopic Applications of Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers written by Tasmim Alam and published by Cuvillier Verlag. This book was released on 2020-10-29 with total page 132 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are attractive for high-resolution spectroscopy because they can provide high power and a narrow linewidth. They are particularly promising in the terahertz (THz) range since they can be used as local oscillators for heterodyne detection as well as transmitters for direct detection. However, THz QCL-based technologies are still under development and are limited by the lack of frequency tunability as well as the frequency and output power stability for free-running operation. In this dissertation, frequency tuning and linewidth of THz QCLs are studied in detail by using rotational spectroscopic features of molecular species. In molecular spectroscopy, the Doppler eff ect broadens the spectral lines of molecules in the gas phase at thermal equilibrium. Saturated absorption spectroscopy has been performed that allows for sub-Doppler resolution of the spectral features. One possible application is QCL frequency stabilization based on the Lamb dip. Since the tunability of the emission frequency is an essential requirement to use THz QCL for high-resolution spectroscopy, a new method has been developed that relies on near-infrared (NIR) optical excitation of the QCL rear-facet. A wide tuning range has been achieved by using this approach. The scheme is straightforward to implement, and the approach can be readily applied to a large class of THz QCLs. The frequency and output stability of the local oscillator has a direct impact on the performance and consistency of the heterodyne spectroscopy. A technique has been developed for a simultaneous stabilization of the frequency and output power by taking advantage of the frequency and power regulation by NIR excitation. The results presented in this thesis will enable the routine use of THz QCLs for spectroscopic applications in the near future.

Two-step MOVPE, in-situ etching and buried implantation: applications to the realization of GaAs laser diodes

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Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
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ISBN 10 : 9783736963979
Pages : 250 pages
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Summary Book Review Two-step MOVPE, in-situ etching and buried implantation: applications to the realization of GaAs laser diodes :

Download or read book Two-step MOVPE, in-situ etching and buried implantation: applications to the realization of GaAs laser diodes written by Pietro della Casa and published by Cuvillier Verlag. This book was released on 2021-03-25 with total page 250 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This work is about two-step epitaxial growth using metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) for the realization of edge-emitting near-infrared laser diodes. The fabricated gallium arsenide-based devices fall into two categories: high-power lasers (watt range, multimodal) and tunable lasers (milliwatt range, monomodal). Common to both cases is that surface contamination – particularly that due to oxygen – needs to be removed before regrowth. Thus, in-situ etching with carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) is first studied. The experimental results include kinetic data, the effects of different etching conditions as well as substrate characteristics, and the effectiveness in reducing surface contamination. These investigations pave the way to devices based on 2-step epitaxy combined with in-situ etching. Correspondingly, thermally-tuned SG-DBR lasers operating around 975 nm have been successfully realized, obtaining a tuning range of 21 nm. In addition, the possibility of using electronic tuning in similar devices has been explored. High-power broad-area lasers have also been realized, using two-step epitaxy combined with ex-situ and in-situ etching, to create a buried, shallow “mesa” containing the active zone. This approach allows introducing lateral electrical and optical confinement, and – simultaneously – non-absorbing mirrors at the laser facets. Additionally, a different strategy to create a buried current aperture is presented, which is based on ion implantation followed by epitaxial regrowth. This enables to improve device performance and simultaneously introduce non-absorbing mirrors at the facets with correspondingly increased reliability.

A deep ultraviolet laser light source by frequency doubling of GaN based external cavity diode laser radiation

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Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
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ISBN 10 : 9783736966130
Pages : 130 pages
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Summary Book Review A deep ultraviolet laser light source by frequency doubling of GaN based external cavity diode laser radiation :

Download or read book A deep ultraviolet laser light source by frequency doubling of GaN based external cavity diode laser radiation written by Norman Ruhnke and published by Cuvillier Verlag. This book was released on 2022-05-13 with total page 130 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: A compact and portable laser light source emitting in the wavelength range between 210 nm and 230 nm would enable numerous applications outside of laboratory environments, such as sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment, water purification or gas and air analysis using absorption spectroscopy. Such a source is also highly attractive for the identification and quantification of proteins and biomolecules by means of laser-induced fluorescence or Raman spectroscopy. In this thesis, a novel concept to realize such a compact and portable laser light source with low power consumption and an emission around 222 nm is investigated. The developed concept is based on single-pass frequency doubling of a commercially available high-power GaN laser diode emitting in the blue spectral range. Due to the low frequency doubling conversion efficiencies in this wavelength range of about 10-4 W-1, a laser diode with high optical output power above 1 W is required as pump source. Moreover, it has to exhibit narrowband emission in the range of the acceptance bandwidth of the applied nonlinear BBO crystal. Since GaN-based high-power laser diodes typically show broad emission spectra of Δλ = 1…2 nm, stabilizing and narrowing their wavelength by using external wavelength-selective elements is investigated and presented for the first time. With the understanding for the novel concept gained in this work, a compact ultraviolet laser light source was realized. It has a power consumption of less than 10 W and is exceptionally robust due to its immoveable components. The demonstrated output power of 160 μW enables numerous industrial and everyday applications for which previous laser systems have been too complex and overly cost- and energy-intensive.

Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Phenomena in High-Brightness Diode Lasers using Numerical Simulations

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Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
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ISBN 10 : 9783736962897
Pages : 176 pages
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Summary Book Review Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Phenomena in High-Brightness Diode Lasers using Numerical Simulations :

Download or read book Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Phenomena in High-Brightness Diode Lasers using Numerical Simulations written by Anissa Zeghuzi and published by Cuvillier Verlag. This book was released on 2020-10-22 with total page 176 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Broad-area lasers are edge-emitting semiconductor lasers with a wide lateral emission aperture. This feature enables high output powers but also diminishes the lateral beam quality and results in their inherently non-stationary behavior. Research in the area is driven by application, and the main objective is to increase the brightness, which includes both output power and lateral beam quality. To understand the underlying spatio-temporal phenomena and to apply this knowledge in order to reduce costs for brightness optimization, a self-consistent simulation tool taking all essential processes into account is vital. Firstly, in this work a quasi-three-dimensional opto-electronic and thermal model is presented that describes essential qualitative characteristics of real devices well. Time-dependent traveling-wave equations are utilized to characterize the inherently non-stationary optical fields, which are coupled to dynamic rate equations for the excess carriers in the active region. This model is extended by an injection-current-density model to accurately include lateral current spreading and spatial hole burning. Furthermore, a temperature model is presented that includes short-time local heating near the active region as well as the formation of a stationary temperature profile. Secondly, the reasons of brightness degradation, i.e. the origins of power saturation and the spatially modulated field profile, are investigated. And lastly, designs that mitigate those effects limiting the lateral brightness under pulsed and continuous-wave operation are discussed. Amongst those designs a novel “chessboard laser” is presented that utilizes longitudinal-lateral gain-loss modulation and an additional phase tailoring to obtain a very low far-field divergence.

AlN base layers for UV LEDs

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Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
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ISBN 10 : 9783736964518
Pages : 156 pages
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Summary Book Review AlN base layers for UV LEDs :

Download or read book AlN base layers for UV LEDs written by Sebastian Walde and published by Cuvillier Verlag. This book was released on 2021-06-22 with total page 156 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: To enable the fabrication of high performance ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) this work aims at improving the quality of AlN base layers on sapphire substrates. The main issues for UV LEDs are still a limited internal quantum efficiency due to a high amount of threading dislocations along with a limited light extraction efficiency due to total internal reflection at the AlN/sapphire interface. Therefore, high-temperature annealing of AlN/sapphire layers and growth on nanopatterned sapphire substrates were comprehensively investigated. High-temperature annealing was applied to AlN layers of different strain and thickness grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The threading dislocation density could be successfully reduced by more than one order of magnitude down to 6 × 108 cm-2. Wave optical simulations of UV LEDs on nanopatterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) were conducted and showed a potential increase in light extraction efficiency compared to a planar substrate. The optimized MOVPE growth process on sapphire nanopillars and sapphire nanoholes resulted in a fully coalesced and atomically smooth AlN surface. The threading dislocation density was reduced to 1 ×109 cm-2 for AlN on both nanopillars and nanoholes. UVC LEDs emitting at 265 nm wavelength were grown on top of the developed templates. Increased internal efficiency was obtained by reduced dislocation density and more efficient light extraction was achieved on NPSS in case of a transparent heterostructure and reflective contacts. Thus, the developed templates yield considerable improvement in light output compared to conventional templates.

Epitaxial Design Optimizations for Increased Efficiency in GaAs-Based High Power Diode Lasers

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Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
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ISBN 10 : 9783736963962
Pages : 136 pages
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Summary Book Review Epitaxial Design Optimizations for Increased Efficiency in GaAs-Based High Power Diode Lasers :

Download or read book Epitaxial Design Optimizations for Increased Efficiency in GaAs-Based High Power Diode Lasers written by Thorben Kaul and published by Cuvillier Verlag. This book was released on 2021-04-09 with total page 136 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This work presents progress in the root-cause analysis of power saturation mechanisms in continuous wave (CW) driven GaAs-based high-power broad area diode lasers operated at 935 nm. Target is to increase efficiency at high optical CW powers by epitaxial design. The novel extreme triple asymmetric (ETAS) design was developed and patented within this work to equip diode lasers that use an extremely thin p-waveguide with a high modal gain. An iterative variation of diode lasers employing ETAS designs was used to experimentally clarify the impact of modal gain on the temperature dependence of internal differential quantum efficiency (IDQE) and optical loss. High modal gain leads to increased free carrier absorption from the active region. However, less power saturation is observed, which must then be attributed to an improved temperature sensitivity of the IDQE. The effect of longitudinal spatial hole burning (LSHB) leads to above average non-linear carrier loss at the back facet of the device. At high CW currents the junction temperature rises. Therefore, not only the asymmetry of the carrier profile increases but also the average carrier density in order to compensate for the decreased material gain and increased threshold gain. This carrier non-pinning effect above threshold is found in this work to enhance the impact of LSHB already at low currents, leading to rapid degradation of IDQE with temperature. This finding puts LSHB into a new context for CW-driven devices as it emphasizes the importance of low carrier densities at threshold. The carrier density was effectively reduced by applying the novel ETAS design. This enabled diode lasers to be realized that show minimized degradation of IDQE with temperature and therefore improved performance in CW operation.