Scientists, Business, and the State, 1890-1960

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Publisher : Univ of North Carolina Press
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Language : EN, FR, GB
ISBN 10 : 9780807875285
Pages : 264 pages
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Summary Book Review Scientists, Business, and the State, 1890-1960 :

Download or read book Scientists, Business, and the State, 1890-1960 written by Patrick J. McGrath and published by Univ of North Carolina Press. This book was released on 2003-01-14 with total page 264 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: In the late nineteenth century, scientists began allying themselves with America's corporate, political, and military elites. They did so not just to improve their professional standing and win more money for research, says Patrick McGrath, but for political reasons as well. They wanted to use their new institutional connections to effect a transformation of American political culture. They succeeded, but not in ways that all scientists envisioned or agreed upon. McGrath describes how, between 1890 and 1960, scientific, business, and political leaders together forged a new definition of American democracy in which science and technology were presented to the public as crucial ingredients of the nation's progress, prosperity, and political stability. But as scientists became more prominent, they provoked conflicts among themselves as well as with their institutional patrons over exactly how their expertise should be used. McGrath examines the bitter battles that erupted over the role scientists should play during the Great Depression, World War II, the Cold War arms race, and the security and loyalty investigations of the 1950s. He finds that, by the end of the 1950s, scientists were regarded by the political and military elite not as partners but as subordinate technicians who were expected to supply weapons on demand for the Cold War state. Originally published 2001. A UNC Press Enduring Edition -- UNC Press Enduring Editions use the latest in digital technology to make available again books from our distinguished backlist that were previously out of print. These editions are published unaltered from the original, and are presented in affordable paperback formats, bringing readers both historical and cultural value.

Scientists, Business, and the State, 1890-1960

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Language : EN, FR, GB
ISBN 10 : 0807874418
Pages : 264 pages
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Rating : 4.8/5 (744 users download)


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Summary Book Review Scientists, Business, and the State, 1890-1960 :

Download or read book Scientists, Business, and the State, 1890-1960 written by Patrick J. McGrath and published by . This book was released on 2012-09-01 with total page 264 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Scientists, Business, and the State, 1890-1960

Make It Rain

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Publisher : University of Chicago Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780226597928
Pages : 327 pages
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Rating : 4.2/5 (265 users download)


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Summary Book Review Make It Rain :

Download or read book Make It Rain written by Kristine C. Harper and published by University of Chicago Press. This book was released on 2018-06-04 with total page 327 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Weather control. Juxtaposing those two words is enough to raise eyebrows in a world where even the best weather models still fail to nail every forecast, and when the effects of climate change on sea level height, seasonal averages of weather phenomena, and biological behavior are being watched with interest by all, regardless of political or scientific persuasion. But between the late nineteenth century—when the United States first funded an attempt to “shock” rain out of clouds—and the late 1940s, rainmaking (as it had been known) became weather control. And then things got out of control. In Make It Rain, Kristine C. Harper tells the long and somewhat ludicrous history of state-funded attempts to manage, manipulate, and deploy the weather in America. Harper shows that governments from the federal to the local became helplessly captivated by the idea that weather control could promote agriculture, health, industrial output, and economic growth at home, or even be used as a military weapon and diplomatic tool abroad. Clear fog for landing aircraft? There’s a project for that. Gentle rain for strawberries? Let’s do it! Enhanced snowpacks for hydroelectric utilities? Check. The heyday of these weather control programs came during the Cold War, as the atmosphere came to be seen as something to be defended, weaponized, and manipulated. Yet Harper demonstrates that today there are clear implications for our attempts to solve the problems of climate change.

Science and the State

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Publisher : Cambridge University Press
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ISBN 10 : 9781107155671
Pages : 266 pages
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Rating : 4.1/5 (71 users download)


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Summary Book Review Science and the State :

Download or read book Science and the State written by John Gascoigne and published by Cambridge University Press. This book was released on 2019-03-31 with total page 266 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The first historical overview of the partnership between science and the state from the Scientific Revolution to World War II.

The Effortless Economy of Science?

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Publisher : Duke University Press
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ISBN 10 : 0822333228
Pages : 463 pages
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Rating : 4.3/5 (332 users download)


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Summary Book Review The Effortless Economy of Science? :

Download or read book The Effortless Economy of Science? written by Carl E Koch Professor of Economics and Policy Studies and the History and Philosophy of Science Philip Mirowski and published by Duke University Press. This book was released on 2004 with total page 463 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: A leading scholar of the history and philosophy of economic thought, Philip Mirowski argues that there has been a top-to-bottom transformation in how scientific research is organized and funded in Western countries over the past two decades and that these changes necessitate a reexamination of the ways that science and economics interact. Mirowski insists on the need to bring together the insights of economics, science studies, and the philosophy of science in order to understand how and why particular research programs get stabilized through interdisciplinary appropriation, controlled attributions of error, and funding restrictions. Mirowski contends that neoclassical economists have persistently presumed and advanced an “effortless economy of science,” a misleading model of a self-sufficient and conceptually self-referential social structure that transcends market operations in pursuit of absolute truth. In the stunning essays collected here, he presents a radical critique of the ways that neoclassical economics is used to support, explain, and legitimate the current social practices underlying the funding and selection of “successful” science projects. He questions a host of theories, including the portraits of science put forth by Karl Popper, Michael Polanyi, and Thomas Kuhn. Among the many topics he examines are the social stabilization of quantitative measurement, the repressed history of econometrics, and the social construction of the laws of supply and demand and their putative opposite, the gift economy. In The Effortless Economy of Science? Mirowski moves beyond grand abstractions about science, truth, and democracy in order to begin to talk about the way science is lived and practiced today.

Barry Commoner and the Science of Survival

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Publisher : MIT Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780262262651
Pages : 300 pages
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Rating : 4.2/5 (622 users download)


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Summary Book Review Barry Commoner and the Science of Survival :

Download or read book Barry Commoner and the Science of Survival written by Michael Egan and published by MIT Press. This book was released on 2009-01-23 with total page 300 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Chronicles the activist career of Barry Commoner, one of the most influential American environmental thinkers, and his role in recasting the environmental movement after World War II. For over half a century, the biologist Barry Commoner has been one of the most prominent and charismatic defenders of the American environment, appearing on the cover of Time magazine in 1970 as the standard-bearer of "the emerging science of survival." In Barry Commoner and the Science of Survival, Michael Egan examines Commoner's social and scientific activism and charts an important shift in American environmental values since World War II.Throughout his career, Commoner believed that scientists had a social responsibility, and that one of their most important obligations was to provide citizens with accessible scientific information so they could be included in public debates that concerned them. Egan shows how Commoner moved naturally from calling attention to the hazards of nuclear fallout to raising public awareness of the environmental dangers posed by the petrochemical industry. He argues that Commoner's belief in the importance of dissent, the dissemination of scientific information, and the need for citizen empowerment were critical planks in the remaking of American environmentalism. Commoner's activist career can be defined as an attempt to weave together a larger vision of social justice. Since the 1960s, he has called attention to parallels between the environmental, civil rights, labor, and peace movements, and connected environmental decline with poverty, injustice, exploitation, and war, arguing that the root cause of environmental problems was the American economic system and its manifestations. He was instrumental in pointing out that there was a direct association between socioeconomic standing and exposure to environmental pollutants and that economics, not social responsibility, was guiding technological decision making. Egan argues that careful study of Commoner's career could help reinvigorate the contemporary environmental movement at a point when the environmental stakes have never been so high.

Knowledge as Social Order

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Publisher : Routledge
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Language : EN, FR, GB
ISBN 10 : 9781317108917
Pages : 198 pages
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Rating : 4.3/5 (171 users download)


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Summary Book Review Knowledge as Social Order :

Download or read book Knowledge as Social Order written by Massimo Mazzotti and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2016-04-22 with total page 198 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Investigating a theme first pioneered by Barry Barnes in the early 1970s, this volume explores the relationship between social order and legitimate knowledge and is intended as a tribute to Barnes' seminal role in the development of the discipline of science and technology studies (STS). The contributors highlight the way in which Barnes' work has shaped their way of conceptualizing the basic relation between knowledge and society. In doing this they explore the original sociological underpinnings of STS while pointing to the way in which Barnes' interdisciplinary work has been developed to tackle current concerns in the field as well as in social theory. They also address the concerns of social scientists who are investigating the nature of power and agency and the problem of social order, emphasizing the essential role played by scientific knowledge and technological machinery in the construction of social life. Contributors to the volume include Martin Kusch, Steven Loyal, Mark Haugaard, David Bloor, Trevor Pinch, John Dupre, Donald MacKenzie, Harry Collins, Steven Shapin and Karin Knorr Cetina.

Energy, the Modern State, and the American World System

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Publisher : SUNY Press
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ISBN 10 : 9781438469829
Pages : 196 pages
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Rating : 4.4/5 (384 users download)


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Summary Book Review Energy, the Modern State, and the American World System :

Download or read book Energy, the Modern State, and the American World System written by George A. Gonzalez and published by SUNY Press. This book was released on 2018-03-01 with total page 196 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Examines political authority in the modern era as a function of specific energy politics. In this provocative and original study, George A. Gonzalez argues that the relationship between energy and the state, as well as global politics, has become more and more deeply intertwined, reaching something of a crescendo with the global hegemony of Pax Americana in the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. He presents a clear and concise case for viewing the modern state as the collaborative and affirmative union of capitalism and political authority in a setting where energy resources, be it wind, coal, or oil, provide the basis for the relatively inexpensive projection of political power. More broadly, energy serves as the foundation of the modern economy and, because of this, a prime function of the modern state is ensuring access to cheap, reliable sources to power and grow the economy. Historically, energy is more of a zero-sum resource than capital, markets, labor, or technology, and thus is a greater source of geopolitical tension and violence. Energy politics, and by extension international politics is, moreover, shaped by domestic corporate elites, especially those within the United States. “This book advances a hard-hitting and well-made argument about the energy-resource bases of state power, political and economic development, and the capture of government by corporate elites. It combines historical domestic development with the rise and consolidation of US hegemony. It successfully links domestic elite planners, funded by major corporate forces, with state power, providing a major critique of US capitalist democracy and its severe limitations.” — Inderjeet Parmar, author of Foundations of the American Century: The Ford, Carnegie, and Rockefeller Foundations in the Rise of American Power

The Machine in Neptune's Garden

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Publisher : Watson Pub International
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ISBN 10 : 0881353728
Pages : 371 pages
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Rating : 4.3/5 (537 users download)


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Summary Book Review The Machine in Neptune's Garden :

Download or read book The Machine in Neptune's Garden written by Helen M. Rozwadowski and published by Watson Pub International. This book was released on 2004 with total page 371 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:

Urban Sprawl, Global Warming, and the Empire of Capital

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Publisher : SUNY Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780791493892
Pages : 170 pages
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Rating : 4.7/5 (914 users download)


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Summary Book Review Urban Sprawl, Global Warming, and the Empire of Capital :

Download or read book Urban Sprawl, Global Warming, and the Empire of Capital written by George A. Gonzalez and published by SUNY Press. This book was released on 2009-03-05 with total page 170 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Argues that the United States refuses to address global warming because of the reliance of the American economy on urban sprawl.

Cultural Hegemony in a Scientific World

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Publisher : BRILL
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ISBN 10 : 9789004443778
Pages : 440 pages
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Rating : 4.0/5 (44 users download)


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Summary Book Review Cultural Hegemony in a Scientific World :

Download or read book Cultural Hegemony in a Scientific World written by and published by BRILL. This book was released on 2020-12-07 with total page 440 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: A comprehensive survey of how scientific disciplines have always been informed by politics and ideology on the basis of the Gramscian views in historical materialism, hegemony and civil society.

Cancer, Radiation Therapy, and the Market

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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN 10 : 9781351978125
Pages : 244 pages
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Rating : 4.3/5 (519 users download)


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Summary Book Review Cancer, Radiation Therapy, and the Market :

Download or read book Cancer, Radiation Therapy, and the Market written by Barbara Bridgman Perkins and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2017-08-16 with total page 244 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Appraising cancer as a major medical market in the 2010s, Wall Street investors placed their bets on single-technology treatment facilities costing $100-$300 million each. Critics inside medicine called the widely-publicized proton-center boom "crazy medicine and unsustainable public policy." There was no valid evidence, they claimed, that proton beams were more effective than less costly alternatives. But developers expected insurance to cover their centers’ staggeringly high costs and debts. Was speculation like this new to health care? Cancer, Radiation Therapy, and the Market shows how the radiation therapy specialty in the United States (later called radiation oncology) coevolved with its device industry throughout the twentieth-century. Academic engineers and physicians acquired financing to develop increasingly powerful radiation devices, initiated companies to manufacture the devices competitively, and designed hospital and freestanding procedure units to utilize them. In the process, they incorporated market strategies into medical organization and practice. Although palliative benefits and striking tumor reductions fueled hopes of curing cancer, scientific research all too often found serious patient harm and disappointing beneficial impact on cancer survival. This thoroughly documented and provocative inquiry concludes that public health policy needs to re-evaluate market-driven high-tech medicine and build evidence-based health care systems.

Never Pure

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Publisher : JHU Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780801898617
Pages : 568 pages
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Rating : 4.8/5 (18 users download)


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Summary Book Review Never Pure :

Download or read book Never Pure written by Steven Shapin and published by JHU Press. This book was released on 2010-06-01 with total page 568 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This wide-ranging and intensely interdisciplinary collection by one of the most distinguished historians and sociologists of science represents some of the leading edges of change in the scholarly understanding of science over the past several decades.

In Sputnik's Shadow

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Publisher : Rutgers University Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780813546889
Pages : 454 pages
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Rating : 4.8/5 (135 users download)


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Summary Book Review In Sputnik's Shadow :

Download or read book In Sputnik's Shadow written by Zuoyue Wang and published by Rutgers University Press. This book was released on 2009 with total page 454 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: In Sputnik's Shadow traces the rise and fall of the President's Science Advisory Committee from its ascendance under Eisenhower to its demise during the Nixon years. Zuoyue Wang examines key turning points during the twentieth century, including the beginning of the Cold War, the debates over nuclear weapons, the Sputnik crisis in 1957, the struggle over the Vietnam War, and the eventual end of the Cold War, showing how the involvement of scientists in executive policymaking evolved over time and brings new insights to the intellectual, social, and cultural histories of the era.

The Scientific Life

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Publisher : University of Chicago Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780226750170
Pages : 486 pages
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Rating : 4.2/5 (267 users download)


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Summary Book Review The Scientific Life :

Download or read book The Scientific Life written by Steven Shapin and published by University of Chicago Press. This book was released on 2009-08-01 with total page 486 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Who are scientists? What kind of people are they? What capacities and virtues are thought to stand behind their considerable authority? They are experts—indeed, highly respected experts—authorized to describe and interpret the natural world and widely trusted to help transform knowledge into power and profit. But are they morally different from other people? The Scientific Life is historian Steven Shapin’s story about who scientists are, who we think they are, and why our sensibilities about such things matter. Conventional wisdom has long held that scientists are neither better nor worse than anyone else, that personal virtue does not necessarily accompany technical expertise, and that scientific practice is profoundly impersonal. Shapin, however, here shows how the uncertainties attending scientific research make the virtues of individual researchers intrinsic to scientific work. From the early twentieth-century origins of corporate research laboratories to the high-flying scientific entrepreneurship of the present, Shapin argues that the radical uncertainties of much contemporary science have made personal virtues more central to its practice than ever before, and he also reveals how radically novel aspects of late modern science have unexpectedly deep historical roots. His elegantly conceived history of the scientific career and character ultimately encourages us to reconsider the very nature of the technical and moral worlds in which we now live. Building on the insights of Shapin’s last three influential books, featuring an utterly fascinating cast of characters, and brimming with bold and original claims, The Scientific Life is essential reading for anyone wanting to reflect on late modern American culture and how it has been shaped.

Energy and Empire

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Publisher : SUNY Press
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ISBN 10 : 9781438442952
Pages : 168 pages
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Rating : 4.4/5 (384 users download)


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Summary Book Review Energy and Empire :

Download or read book Energy and Empire written by George A. Gonzalez and published by SUNY Press. This book was released on 2012-09-01 with total page 168 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: What set the United States on the path to developing commercial nuclear energy in the 1950s, and what led to the seeming demise of that industry in the late 1970s? Why, in spite of the depletion of fossil fuels and the obvious dangers of global warming, has the United States moved so slowly toward adopting alternatives? In Energy and Empire, George A. Gonzalez presents a clear and concise argument demonstrating that economic elites tied their advocacy of the nuclear energy option to post-1945 American foreign policy goals. At the same time, these elites opposed government support for other forms of energy, such as solar, that cannot be dominated by one nation. While researchers have blamed safety concerns and other factors as helping to arrest the expansion of domestic nuclear power plant construction, Gonzalez points to an entirely different set of motivations stemming from the loss of America’s domination/control of the enrichment of nuclear fuel. Once foreign countries could enrich their own fuel, civilian nuclear power ceased to be a lever the United States could use to economically/politically dominate other nations. Instead, it became a major concern relating to nuclear weapons proliferation.

Epistemic Virtues in the Sciences and the Humanities

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Publisher : Springer
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ISBN 10 : 9783319488936
Pages : 198 pages
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Rating : 4.3/5 (194 users download)


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Summary Book Review Epistemic Virtues in the Sciences and the Humanities :

Download or read book Epistemic Virtues in the Sciences and the Humanities written by Jeroen van Dongen and published by Springer. This book was released on 2017-12-07 with total page 198 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book explores how physicists, astronomers, chemists, and historians in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries employed ‘epistemic virtues’ such as accuracy, objectivity, and intellectual courage. In doing so, it takes the first step in providing an integrated history of the sciences and humanities. It assists in addressing such questions as: What kind of perspective would enable us to compare organic chemists in their labs with paleographers in the Vatican Archives, or anthropologists on a field trip with mathematicians poring over their formulas? While the concept of epistemic virtues has previously been discussed, primarily in the contexts of the history and philosophy of science, this volume is the first to enlist the concept in bridging the gap between the histories of the sciences and the humanities. Chapters research whether epistemic virtues can serve as a tool to transcend the institutional disciplinary boundaries and thus help to attain a ‘post-disciplinary’ historiography of modern knowledge. Readers will gain a contextualization of epistemic virtues in time and space as the book shows that scholars themselves often spoke in terms of virtue and vice about their tasks and accomplishments. This collection of essays opens up new perspectives on questions, discourses, and practices shared across the disciplines, even at a time when the neo-Kantian distinction between sciences and humanities enjoyed its greatest authority. Scholars including historians of science and of the humanities, intellectual historians, virtue epistemologists, and philosophers of science will all find this book of particular interest and value.